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If you collect postcards, 20th century United Kingdom history, postal, etc this is a nice one for your paper or ephemera collection. The Titanic Engineers' Memorial is a memorial in East (Andrews) Park, Southampton, United Kingdom, to the engineers who died in the Titanic disaster on 15 April 1912. The bronze and granite memorial was originally unveiled by Sir Archibald Denny, president of the Institute of Marine Engineers on 22 April 1914.  The event was attended by an estimated 100,000 Southampton residents. Statue of the goddess Nike and carvings representing the engineer officers.
Joseph Bell was the Chief Engineer Officer on the RMS Titanic. His staff consisted of 24 engineers, 6 electrical engineers, two boilermakers, a plumber and a clerk.
The monument was originally erected with funding from worldwide donations.  It was designed and built by Whitehead and Son of the Imperial Works, Kennington Oval in London.  Ferdinand Victor Blundstone was the sculptor.
 It is officially a Grade II listed building. On a sunny afternoon on 22 April 1914, 100,000 people gathered in Andrews Park, Southampton to witness the unveiling of the memorial to the engineers who lost their lives on the Titanic two years earlier.  The bronze and granite structure was draped in the Union flag. Unveiling the statue, Sir Archibald Denny said. By the manner of their deaths [the engineers] carried out one of the finest traditions of our race.
They must have known that pumping could do no more than delay the final catastrophe, yet they stuck pluckily to their duty. Driven back from boiler-room to boiler-room, fighting for every inch of draught to give time for the launching of the boats, not one of those brave officers was saved.
The monument bears the following inscription:. The monument was restored in 2010 in a joint venture between Southampton City Council and TV production company Twenty Twenty Television.  Almost opposite the main memorial, on the corner of Cumberland Place and London Road, is the Titanic Musicians' Memorial to Wallace Hartley and the other musicians who played on the Titanic. RMS Titanic sank in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean, four days into her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Titanic received six warnings of sea ice on 14 April but was travelling about 22 knots when her lookouts sighted the iceberg.
They used distress flares and radio (wireless) messages to attract help as the passengers were put into lifeboats. Poor management of the evacuation meant many boats were launched before they were completely full. Titanic sank with over a thousand passengers and crew still on board. Almost all of those who jumped or fell into the water drowned or died within minutes due to the effects of cold shock and incapacitation. RMS Carpathia arrived about an hour and a half after the sinking and rescued the last of the survivors by 09:15 on 15 April, some nine and a half hours after the collision.
The disaster shocked the world and caused widespread outrage over the lack of lifeboats, lax regulations, and the unequal treatment of the three passenger classes during the evacuation. Subsequent inquiries recommended sweeping changes to maritime regulations, leading to the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). Titanic on sea trials, 2 April 1912. She and the earlier, RMS Olympic, were almost one and a half times the gross register tonnage of Cunard's RMS Lusitania and RMS Mauretania, the previous record holders, and were nearly 100 feet (30 m) longer. Titanic could carry 3,547 people in speed and comfort,  and was built on an unprecedented scale. Her reciprocating engines were the largest that had ever been built, standing 40 feet (12 m) high and with cylinders 9 feet (2.7 m) in diameter requiring the burning of 600 long tons (610 t) of coal per day. The passenger accommodation, especially the First Class section, was said to be "of unrivalled extent and magnificence",  indicated by the fares that First Class accommodation commanded. Even Third Class, though considerably less luxurious than Second and First Classes, was unusually comfortable by contemporary standards and was supplied with plentiful quantities of good food, providing her passengers with better conditions than many of them had experienced at home. Titanic's maiden voyage began shortly after noon on 10 April 1912 when she left Southampton on the first leg of her journey to New York.  A few hours later she called at Cherbourg Harbour in north-western France, a journey of 80 nautical miles (148 km; 92 mi), where she took on passengers.  Her next port of call was Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland, which she reached around midday on 11 April.  She left in the afternoon after taking on more passengers and stores. By the time Titanic departed westwards across the Atlantic she was carrying 892 crew members and 1,320 passengers.  Her passengers were a cross-section of Edwardian society, from millionaires such as John Jacob Astor and Benjamin Guggenheim,  to poor emigrants from countries as disparate as Armenia, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, Syria and Russia seeking a new life in the United States. Route of Titanic's maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City, the point where she sank marked in yellow. He had four decades of seafaring experience and had served as captain of RMS Olympic, from which he was transferred to command Titanic.
 The vast majority of the crew who served under him were not trained sailors, but were either engineers, firemen, or stokers, responsible for looking after the engines; or stewards and galley staff, responsible for the passengers. The ice conditions were attributed to a mild winter that caused large numbers of icebergs to shift off the west coast of Greenland. Black and white photograph of a large iceberg with three "peaks".
The iceberg thought to have been hit by Titanic, photographed the morning of 15 April 1912 by SS Prinz Adalbert's chief steward. The ice conditions in the North Atlantic were the worst for any April in the previous 50 years (which was the reason why the lookouts were unaware that they were about to steam into a line of drifting ice several miles wide and many miles long).  Not all of these messages were relayed by the radio operators.
The first warning came at 09:00 from RMS Caronia reporting "bergs, growlers[d] and field ice".  Captain Smith acknowledged receipt of the message.  This too was acknowledged by Smith, who showed the report to J. Bruce Ismay, the chairman of the White Star Line, aboard Titanic for her maiden voyage.  This message never reached Captain Smith or the other officers on Titanic's bridge.
The reason is unclear, but it may have been forgotten because the radio operators had to fix faulty equipment. SS Californian reported "three large bergs" at 19:30, and at 21:40, the steamer Mesaba reported: Saw much heavy pack ice and great number large icebergs.  This message, too, never left the Titanic's radio room. The radio operator, Jack Phillips, may have failed to grasp its significance because he was preoccupied with transmitting messages for passengers via the relay station at Cape Race, Newfoundland; the radio set had broken down the day before, resulting in a backlog of messages that the two operators were trying to clear.
 A final warning was received at 22:30 from operator Cyril Evans of Californian, which had halted for the night in an ice field some miles away, but Phillips cut it off and signalled back: Shut up! I'm working Cape Race. [e] Titanic's high speed in waters where ice had been reported was later criticised as reckless, but it reflected standard maritime practice at the time. The North Atlantic liners prioritised time-keeping above all other considerations, sticking rigidly to a schedule that would guarantee their arrival at an advertised time.They were frequently driven at close to their full speed, treating hazard warnings as advisories rather than calls to action. It was widely believed that ice posed little risk; close calls were not uncommon, and even head-on collisions had not been disastrous. In 1907, SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, a German liner, had rammed an iceberg and suffered a crushed bow, but was still able to complete her voyage. Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that. As Titanic approached her fatal collision, most passengers had gone to bed and command of the bridge had passed from Second Officer Charles Lightoller to First Officer William Murdoch. Lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee were occupying the crow's nest, 29 metres (95 ft) above the deck. The air temperature had fallen to near freezing, and the ocean was completely calm. Colonel Archibald Gracie, one of the survivors of the disaster, later wrote that the sea was like glass, so smooth that the stars were clearly reflected.  It is now known that such exceptionally calm water is a sign of nearby pack ice. Although the air was clear, there was no moon, and with the sea so calm, there was nothing to give away the position of the nearby icebergs; had the sea been rougher, waves breaking against the icebergs would have made them more visible.  The lookouts were nonetheless well aware of the ice hazard, as Lightoller had ordered them and other crew members to "keep a sharp look-out for ice, particularly small ice and growlers". At 23:30, Fleet and Lee noticed a slight haze on the horizon ahead of them, but did not make anything of it. Some experts now believe that this haze was actually a mirage caused by cold waters meeting warm air-similar to a water mirage in the desert-when Titanic entered Iceberg Alley. This would have resulted in a raised horizon, blinding the lookouts from spotting anything far away. Titanic's course during her attempted "port around".
Course traveled by the bow. Course traveled by the stern. Nine minutes later, at 23:39, Fleet spotted an iceberg in Titanic's path.He rang the lookout bell three times and telephoned the bridge to inform Sixth Officer James Moody. Fleet asked, Is there anyone there? " Moody replied, "Yes, what do you see? " Fleet replied, "Iceberg, right ahead! In 2010, Louise Patten asserted that her grandfather, Charles Lightoller (who died before she was born) claimed that the helmsman Robert Hichens initially panicked and turned the rudder in the wrong direction. Diagram showing how the iceberg buckled Titanic's hull, causing the riveted plates to come apart. The iceberg buckled the plates, popped rivets and damaged a sequence of compartments. The impact with the iceberg was long thought to have produced a huge opening in Titanic's hull, "not less than 300 feet (91 m) in length, 10 feet (3 m) above the level of the keel", as one writer later put it.  At the British inquiry following the accident, Edward Wilding (chief naval architect for Harland and Wolff), calculating on the basis of the observed flooding of forward compartments forty minutes after the collision, testified that the area of the hull opened to the sea was "somewhere about 12 square feet (1.1 m2)".
 He also stated that "I believe it must have been in places, not a continuous rip", but that the different openings must have extended along an area of around 300 feet, to account for the flooding in several compartments.  The findings of the inquiry state that the damage extended over a length of about 300 feet, and hence many subsequent writers followed this more vague statement. Modern ultrasound surveys of the wreck have found that the actual damage to the hull was very similar to Wilding's statement, consisting of six narrow openings covering a total area of only about 12 to 13 square feet (1.1 to 1.2 m2). Matthias, who made the measurements, the damage consisted of a series of deformations in the starboard side that start and stop along the hull... The gaps, the longest of which measures about 39 feet (12 m) long, appear to have followed the line of the hull plates.
This suggests that the iron rivets along the plate seams snapped off or popped open to create narrow gaps through which water flooded. An engineer from Titanic's builders, Harland and Wolff, suggested this scenario at the British Wreck Commissioner's inquiry following the disaster but his view was discounted. Recovered pieces of Titanic's hull plates appear to have shattered on impact with the iceberg, without bending.
The plates in the central 60 percent of her hull were held together with triple rows of mild steel rivets, but the plates in the bow and stern were held together with double rows of wrought iron rivets which were - according to materials scientists Tim Foecke and Jennifer McCarty - near their stress limits even before the collision.  These "Best" or No.
3 iron rivets had a high level of slag inclusions, making them more brittle than the more usual "Best-Best" No. 4 iron rivets, and more prone to snapping when put under stress, particularly in extreme cold.  When Olympic rammed and sank the U-boat U-103 with her bow, the stem was twisted and hull plates on the starboard side were buckled without impairing the hull's integrity. Above the waterline, there was little evidence of the collision. Many of the passengers felt a bump or shudder - "just as though we went over about a thousand marbles",  as one survivor put it - but did not know what had happened.
 Those on the lowest decks, nearest the site of the collision, felt it much more directly. Engine Oiler Walter Hurst recalled being awakened by a grinding crash along the starboard side. No one was very much alarmed but knew we had struck something.
" Fireman George Kemish heard a "heavy thud and grinding tearing sound from the starboard hull. Line diagram showing Titanic from the side.
Bulkhead arrangement with damaged areas shown in green. Hesketh and leading stoker Frederick Barrett were both struck by a jet of icy water in No. 6 boiler room and escaped just before the room's watertight door closed.
 This was an extremely dangerous situation for the engineering staff; the boilers were still full of hot high-pressure steam and there was a substantial risk that they would explode if they came into contact with the cold seawater flooding the boiler rooms. The stokers and firemen were ordered to reduce the fires and vent the boilers, sending great quantities of steam up the funnel venting pipes. They were waist-deep in freezing water by the time they finished their work. Titanic's lower decks were divided into sixteen compartments.
Each bulkhead extended at least to the underside of E Deck, nominally one deck, or about 11 feet (3.4 m), above the waterline. The two nearest the bow and the six nearest the stern went one deck further up. Each bulkhead could be sealed by watertight doors.
The engine rooms and boiler rooms on the tank top deck had vertically closing doors that could be controlled remotely from the bridge, lowered automatically by a float if water was present, or closed manually by the crew. These took about 30 seconds to close; warning bells and alternative escape routes were provided so that the crew would not be trapped by the doors.
Above the tank top level, on the Orlop Deck, F Deck and E Deck, the doors closed horizontally and were manually operated. They could be closed at the door itself or from the deck above. Although the watertight bulkheads extended well above the water line, they were not sealed at the top. This is what happened to Titanic, which had suffered damage to the forepeak tank, the three forward holds and No. 6 boiler room, a total of five compartments.
Titanic was only designed to float with any two compartments flooded, but she could remain afloat with certain combinations of three or even four compartments-the first four-open to the ocean. Titanic sank in two and a half hours.Captain Smith felt the collision in his cabin and immediately came to the bridge. 6 boiler room was already filled to a depth of 14 feet (4.3 m). Water was spilling over into No. 5 boiler room,  and crewmen there were battling to pump it out.
This was far too much for Titanic's ballast and bilge pumps to handle; the total pumping capacity of all the pumps combined was only 1,700 long tons (1,700 t) per hour.  Andrews informed the captain that the first five compartments were flooded, and therefore Titanic was doomed.
By his estimate, she could remain afloat for no longer than about two hours. From the time of the collision to the moment of her sinking, at least 35,000 long tons (36,000 t) of water flooded into Titanic, causing her displacement to nearly double from 48,300 long tons (49,100 t) to over 83,000 long tons (84,000 t). By 1:30, the sinking rate of the front section increased until Titanic reached a down angle of about ten degrees.Photograph of a bearded man wearing a white captain's uniform with crossed arms. Captain Edward Smith in 1911. Elsewhere, air could be heard being forced out by inrushing water.  Above them, stewards went door to door, rousing sleeping passengers and crew-Titanic did not have a public address system-and told them to go to the Boat Deck. The thoroughness of the muster was heavily dependent on the class of the passengers; the first-class stewards were in charge of only a few cabins, while those responsible for the second- and third-class passengers had to manage large numbers of people. The first-class stewards provided hands-on assistance, helping their charges to get dressed and bringing them out onto the deck. With far more people to deal with, the second- and third-class stewards mostly confined their efforts to throwing open doors and telling passengers to put on lifebelts and come up top. In third class, passengers were largely left to their own devices after being informed of the need to come on deck. Around 00:15, the stewards began ordering the passengers to put on their lifebelts,  though again, many passengers took the order as a joke.  Some set about playing an impromptu game of association football with the ice chunks that were now strewn across the foredeck.
 On the boat deck, as the crew began preparing the lifeboats, it was difficult to hear anything over the noise of high-pressure steam being vented from the boilers and escaping via the valves on the funnels above. Lawrence Beesley described the sound as a harsh, deafening boom that made conversation difficult; if one imagines 20 locomotives blowing off steam in a low key it would give some idea of the unpleasant sound that met us as we climbed out on the top deck.  The noise was so loud that the crew had to use hand signals to communicate.  The collapsibles were stored upside down with the sides folded in, and would have to be erected and moved to the davits for launching.  Two were stored under the wooden boats and the other two were lashed atop the officers' quarters.
 The position of the latter would make them extremely difficult to launch, as they weighed several tons each and had to be manhandled down to the boat deck. The shortage of lifeboats was not because of a lack of space nor because of cost. [f] It was therefore commonplace for liners to have far fewer lifeboats than needed to accommodate all their passengers and crew, and of the 39 British liners of the time of over 10,000 long tons (10,000 t), 33 had too few lifeboat places to accommodate everyone on board. Captain Smith was an experienced seaman who had served for 40 years at sea, including 27 years in command.  According to some sources, upon grasping the enormity of what was about to happen, Smith became paralysed by indecision, had a mental breakdown or nervous collapse, and became lost in a trance-like daze, very ineffective and inactive in preventing loss of life.
 According to others, Smith was in charge and full of action during the crisis. After the collision, Smith immediately began an investigation into the nature and extent of the damage, personally making two inspection trips below deck to look for damage, and preparing the wireless men for the possibility of having to call for help.
Smith was observed all around the decks, personally overseeing and helping to load the lifeboats, interacting with passengers, and striking a delicate balance between trying to instil urgency to follow evacuation orders while simultaneously attempting to dissuade panic.  The crew was unprepared for the emergency, as lifeboat training had been minimal.  No lifeboat or fire drills had been conducted since Titanic left Southampton.
Most of the crew were not seamen, and even some of those had no prior experience of rowing a boat. Bonsall, a historian of the disaster, has commented that the evacuation was so badly organised that "even if they had the number [of] lifeboats they needed, it is impossible to see how they could have launched them" given the lack of time and poor leadership.
 Indeed, not all of the lifeboats they did have were actually launched. By about 00:20, 40 minutes after the collision, the loading of the lifeboats was under way.
Second Officer Lightoller recalled afterwards that he had to cup both hands over Smith's ears to communicate over the racket of escaping steam, and said, I yelled at the top of my voice,'Hadn't we better get the women and children into the boats, sir? He heard me and nodded reply. " Smith then ordered Lightoller and Murdoch to "put the women and children in and lower away.
 Lightoller took charge of the boats on the port side and Murdoch took charge of those on the starboard side. The two officers interpreted the "women and children" evacuation order differently; Murdoch took it to mean women and children first, while Lightoller took it to mean women and children only. Lightoller lowered lifeboats with empty seats if there were no women and children waiting to board, while Murdoch allowed a limited number of men to board if all the nearby women and children had embarked. Neither officer knew how many people could safely be carried in the boats as they were lowered and they both erred on the side of caution by not filling them. They could have been lowered quite safely with their full complement of 68 people, especially with the highly favourable weather and sea conditions.
 Had this been done, an additional 500 people could have been saved; instead, hundreds of people, predominantly men, were left on board as lifeboats were launched with many seats vacant. Few passengers at first were willing to board the lifeboats and the officers in charge of the evacuation found it difficult to persuade them. Millionaire John Jacob Astor declared: We are safer here than in that little boat.  Some passengers refused flatly to embark.
Bruce Ismay, realising the urgency of the situation, roamed the starboard boat deck urging passengers and crew to board the boats. A trickle of women, couples and single men were persuaded to board starboard lifeboat No.7, which became the first lifeboat to be lowered. Further information: Lifeboats of the RMS Titanic. At 00:45, lifeboat No. 7 was rowed away from Titanic with an estimated 28 passengers on board, despite a capacity of 65. 6, on the port side, was the next to be lowered at 00:55. It also had 28 people on board, among them the "unsinkable" Margaret "Molly" Brown. Lightoller realised there was only one seaman on board (Quartermaster Robert Hichens) and called for volunteers.
Major Arthur Godfrey Peuchen of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club stepped forward and climbed down a rope into the lifeboat; he was the only adult male passenger whom Lightoller allowed to board during the port side evacuation.  Peuchen's role highlighted a key problem during the evacuation: there were hardly any seamen to man the boats.
They were presumably trapped and drowned by the rising water below decks. In the background men are loading other women into a lifeboat. The Sad Parting, illustration of 1912. The engineers and firemen worked to vent steam from the boilers to prevent them from exploding on contact with the cold water.
Dent Ray narrowly avoided being swept away when a wooden wall between his quarters and the third-class accommodation on E deck collapsed, leaving him waist-deep in water.  Two engineers, Herbert Harvey and Jonathan Shepherd (who had just broken his left leg after falling into a manhole minutes earlier), died in boiler room No. 5 when, at around 00:45, the bunker door separating it from the flooded No. 6 boiler room collapsed and they were swept away by "a wave of green foam" according to leading fireman Frederick Barrett, who barely escaped from the boiler room.
The flow of water soon overwhelmed the pumps and forced the firemen and trimmers to evacuate the forward boiler rooms.  Further aft, Chief Engineer Bell, his engineering colleagues, and a handful of volunteer firemen and greasers stayed behind in the unflooded No. 1, 2 and 3 boiler rooms and in the turbine and reciprocating engine rooms. According to Greaser Frederick Scott at the British inquiry, when it became obvious that nothing more could be done, and the flooding was too severe for the pumps to cope, they came up onto Titanic's open well deck, but by this time all the lifeboats had left.Scott testified to seeing the engineers gathered at the aft end of the starboard Boat Deck. They were caught by the rising water somewhere on D deck. Many of the third-class passengers were also confronted with the sight of water pouring into their quarters on E, F and G decks. Carl Jansson, one of the relatively small number of third-class survivors, later recalled. Then I run down to my cabin to bring my other clothes, watch and bag but only had time to take the watch and coat when water with enormous force came into the cabin and I had to rush up to the deck again where I found my friends standing with lifebelts on and with terror painted on their faces. What should I do now, with no lifebelt and no shoes and no cap? The lifeboats were lowered every few minutes on each side, but most of the boats were greatly under-filled. 5 left with 41 aboard, No.
3 had 32 aboard, No. 8 left with 39 and No. 1 left with just 12 out of a capacity of 40.  The evacuation did not go smoothly and passengers suffered accidents and injuries as it progressed. One woman fell between lifeboat No. First-class passenger Annie Stengel broke several ribs when an overweight German-American doctor and his brother jumped into No. 5, squashing her and knocking her unconscious.  The lifeboats' descent was likewise risky. 3 came close to disaster when, for a time, one of the davits jammed, threatening to pitch the passengers out of the lifeboat and into the sea.
Simulated RMS Titanic distress signal, in Morse code. "SOS SOS CQD CQD - MGY WE ARE SINKING FAST PASSENGERS BEING PUT INTO BOATS MGY". By 01:20, the seriousness of the situation was now apparent to the passengers above decks, who began saying their goodbyes, with husbands escorting their wives and children to the lifeboats. Radio operator Harold Bride suggested to his colleague Jack Phillips that he should use the new SOS signal, as it "may be your last chance to send it". Several responded, of which RMS Carpathia was the closest, at 58 miles (93 km) away. Another to respond was SS Mount Temple, which set a course and headed for Titanic's position but was stopped en route by pack ice. Much nearer was SS Californian, which had warned Titanic of ice a few hours earlier.
 At 23:30, 10 minutes before Titanic hit the iceberg, Californian's sole radio operator, Cyril Evans, shut his set down for the night and went to bed.  On the bridge her Third Officer, Charles Groves, saw a large vessel to starboard around 10 to 12 mi (16 to 19 km) away. It made a sudden turn to port and stopped. If the radio operator of Californian had stayed at his post fifteen minutes longer, hundreds of lives might have been saved. Unsure what the rockets meant, he called Captain Lord, who was resting in the chartroom, and reported the sighting.Image of a distress signal reading: SOS SOS CQD CQD. We are sinking fast passengers being put into boats.
This was one of Titanic's last intelligible radio messages. Some still clung to the hope that the worst would not happen: Lucien Smith told his wife Eloise, It is only a matter of form to have women and children first. " Charlotte Collyer's husband Harvey called to his wife as she was put in a lifeboat, "Go, Lottie! For God's sake, be brave and go! I'll get a seat in another boat!Other couples refused to be separated. Ida Straus, the wife of Macy's department store co-owner and former member of the United States House of Representatives Isidor Straus, told her husband: We have been living together for many years. Where you go, I go.  They sat down in a pair of deck chairs and waited for the end. At this point, the vast majority of passengers who had boarded lifeboats were from first- and second-class.
Few third-class (steerage) passengers had made it up onto the deck, and most were still lost in the maze of corridors or trapped behind gates and partitions that segregated the accommodation for the steerage passengers from the first- and second-class areas.  This segregation was not simply for social reasons, but was a requirement of United States immigration laws, which mandated that third-class passengers be segregated to control immigration and to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. First- and second-class passengers on transatlantic liners disembarked at the main piers on Manhattan Island, but steerage passengers had to go through health checks and processing at Ellis Island. In at least some places, Titanic's crew appear to have actively hindered the steerage passengers' escape. Some of the gates were locked and guarded by crew members, apparently to prevent the steerage passengers from rushing the lifeboats.  Irish survivor Margaret Murphy wrote in May 1912. Before all the steerage passengers had even a chance of their lives, the Titanic's sailors fastened the doors and companionways leading up from the third-class section... A crowd of men was trying to get up to a higher deck and were fighting the sailors; all striking and scuffling and swearing. Women and some children were there praying and crying. Then the sailors fastened down the hatchways leading to the third-class section. They said they wanted to keep the air down there so the vessel could stay up longer.
It meant all hope was gone for those still down there. A long and winding route had to be taken to reach topside; the steerage-class accommodation, located on C through G decks, was at the extreme ends of the decks, and so was the farthest away from the lifeboats.
By contrast, the first-class accommodation was located on the upper decks and so was nearest. Proximity to the lifeboats thus became a key factor in determining who got into them. To add to the difficulty, many of the steerage passengers did not understand or speak English. It was perhaps no coincidence that English-speaking Irish immigrants were disproportionately represented among the steerage passengers who survived.Others made their way through open gates or climbed emergency ladders. Some, perhaps overwhelmed by it all, made no attempt to escape and stayed in their cabins or congregated in prayer in the third-class dining room.  Leading Fireman Charles Hendrickson saw crowds of third-class passengers below decks with their trunks and possessions, as if waiting for someone to direct them.  Psychologist Wynn Craig Wade attributes this to "stoic passivity" produced by generations of being told what to do by social superiors.
 August Wennerström, one of the male steerage passengers to survive, commented later that many of his companions had made no effort to save themselves. Hundreds were in a circle [in the third-class dining saloon] with a preacher in the middle, praying, crying, asking God and Mary to help them.They lay there and yelled, never lifting a hand to help themselves. They had lost their own will power and expected God to do all the work for them. Launching of the last lifeboats. Painting of lifeboats being lowered down the side of Titanic, with one lifeboat about to be lowered on top of another one in the water.
A third lifeboat is visible in the background. 15 was nearly lowered onto lifeboat No. 13 (depicted by Charles Dixon). The two radio operators nonetheless continued sending out distress messages almost to the very end.
The remaining boats were filled much closer to capacity and in an increasing rush. 11 was filled with five people more than its rated capacity. 13 narrowly avoided the same problem but those aboard were unable to release the ropes from which the boat had been lowered. It drifted astern, directly under No.15 as it was being lowered. The ropes were cut in time and both boats made it away safely. Sinking of the Titanic by Henry Reuterdahl. The first signs of panic were seen when a group of passengers attempted to rush port-side lifeboat No.
14 as it was being lowered with 40 people aboard. Fifth Officer Lowe, who was in charge of the boat, fired three warning shots in the air to control the crowd without causing injuries. 16 was lowered five minutes later. It was aboard this boat that White Star chairman and managing director J. While it was still at deck level, Lightoller had found the boat occupied by men who, he wrote later, weren't British, nor of the English-speaking race... [but of] the broad category known to sailors as'dagoes'.  After he evicted them by threatening them with his revolver, he was unable to find enough women and children to fill the boat and lowered it with only 25 people on board out of a possible capacity of 40.  John Jacob Astor saw his wife off to safety in No. 4 boat at 01:55 but was refused entry by Lightoller, even though 20 of the 60 seats aboard were unoccupied. The last boat to be launched was collapsible D, which left at 02:05 with 25 people aboard; two more men jumped on the boat as it was being lowered.  The sea had reached the boat deck and the forecastle was deep underwater.
First-class passenger Edith Evans gave up her place in the boat, and ultimately died in the disaster. She was one of only four women in first class to perish in the sinking. At least two passengers, Third Class Passenger Eugene Daly and First Class passenger George Rheims, claimed to have seen an officer shoot one or two men and commit suicide by shooting himself. It became widely rumored that Murdoch was that officer.  Captain Smith carried out a final tour of the deck, telling the radio operators and other crew members: Now it's every man for himself.
 He may have died there or jumped into the water just before the bridge was submerged and subsequently perished in the water, possibly near Collapsible B.  There is circumstantial evidence to show that the sighting of Andrews in the smoking room must have taken place prior to 1:40 a. That Andrews stayed in the smoking room for some time, then continued assisting with the evacuation.  At around 2:00 a. He was seen back on the boat deck.
To be heard and to draw attention to himself, Andrews waved his arms and called to them in a loud voice.  Another reported sighting of Andrews throwing deck chairs into the ocean for passengers to cling to in the water, was told to David Galloway, a friend of Andrews, who relayed the information to Lord Pirrie, Andrews's uncle.
 Andrews was also reportedly seen carrying a lifebelt, possibly the same one that had been lying on the table in the smoking room, on his way to the bridge, perhaps in search of Captain Smith. As passengers and crew headed to the stern, where Father Thomas Byles was hearing confessions and giving absolutions, Titanic's band played outside the gymnasium.  Titanic had two separate bands of musicians. One was a quintet led by Wallace Hartley that played after dinner and at religious services while the other was a trio who played in the reception area and outside the café and restaurant.The two bands had separate music libraries and arrangements and had not played together before the sinking. Around 30 minutes after colliding with the iceberg, the two bands were called by Captain Smith who ordered them to play in the first class lounge. Passengers present remember them playing lively tunes such as "Alexander's Ragtime Band".
It is unknown if the two piano players were with the band at this time. The exact time is unknown, but the musicians later moved to the boat deck level where they played before moving outside onto the deck itself. A beam of light is shown coming down from heaven to illuminate the couple.Behind them is an empty davit. Nearer, My God, To Thee - cartoon of 1912.  The claim surfaced among the earliest reports of the sinking,  and the hymn became so closely associated with the Titanic disaster that its opening bars were carved on the grave monument of Titanic's bandmaster, Wallace Hartley, one of those who perished.
 Violet Jessop said in her 1934 account of the disaster that she had heard the hymn being played.  In contrast, Archibald Gracie emphatically denied it in his own account, written soon after the sinking, and Radio Operator Harold Bride said that he had heard the band playing ragtime, then "Autumn",  by which he may have meant Archibald Joyce's then-popular waltz "Songe d'Automne" (Autumn Dream). After Titanic struck the iceberg the band began to play bright music, dance music, comic songs - anything that would prevent the passengers from becoming panic-stricken...
Various awe-stricken passengers began to think of the death that faced them and asked the bandmaster to play hymns. The one which appealed to all was'Nearer My God to Thee'. " According to Gracie, who was near the band until that section of deck went under, the tunes played by the band were "cheerful" but he didn't recognise any of them, claiming that if they had played'Nearer, My God, to Thee' as claimed in the newspaper "I assuredly should have noticed it and regarded it as a tactless warning of immediate death to us all and one likely to create panic. Several witnesses support this account including A.
Barkworth, a first-class passenger who testified: I do not wish to detract from the bravery of anybody, but I might mention that when I first came on deck the band was playing a waltz. The next time I passed where the band was stationed, the members had thrown down their instruments and were not to be seen. Bride heard the band playing as he left the radio cabin, which was by now awash, in the company of the other radio operator, Jack Phillips.He had just had a fight with a man who Bride thought was "a stoker, or someone from below decks", who had attempted to steal Phillips' lifebelt. Bride wrote later: I did my duty. I hope I finished [the man]. We left him on the cabin floor of the radio room, and he was not moving.  The two radio operators went in opposite directions, Phillips aft and Bride forward towards collapsible lifeboat B.
Archibald Gracie was also heading aft, but as he made his way towards the stern he found his path blocked by "a mass of humanity several lines deep, covering the boat deck, facing us" - hundreds of steerage passengers, who had finally made it to the deck just as the last lifeboats departed. He gave up on the idea of going aft and jumped into the water to get away from the crowd. Others made no attempt to escape. Illustration of the sinking of the Titanic.  The parties who were trying to lower collapsible boats A and B, including Chief Officer Henry Wilde, Second Officer Lightoller, Sixth Officer Moody,  and Colonel Archibald Gracie, were swept away along with the two boats (boat B floated away upside-down with Harold Bride trapped underneath it, and boat A ended up partly flooded and with its canvas not raised). Bride, Gracie and Lightoller made it onto boat B, but Wilde and Moody perished. Lightoller opted to abandon his post to escape the growing crowds, and dived into the water from the roof of the officers' quarters.
He was sucked into the mouth of a ventilation shaft but was blown clear by "a terrific blast of hot air" and emerged next to the capsized lifeboat.  The forward funnel collapsed under its own weight, crushing several people as it fell into the water and only narrowly missing the lifeboat.  Those still on Titanic felt her structure shuddering as it underwent immense stresses. As first-class passenger Jack Thayer described it. Now, without warning she seemed to start forward, moving forward and into the water at an angle of about fifteen degrees.
This movement with the water rushing up toward us was accompanied by a rumbling roar, mixed with more muffled explosions. It was like standing under a steel railway bridge while an express train passes overhead mingled with the noise of a pressed steel factory and wholesale breakage of china. It was said to have reached an angle of 30-45 degrees,  "revolving apparently around a centre of gravity just astern of midships", as Lawrence Beesley later put it.  Many survivors described a great noise, which some attributed to the boilers exploding.  Beesley described it as "partly a groan, partly a rattle, and partly a smash, and it was not a sudden roar as an explosion would be: it went on successively for some seconds, possibly fifteen to twenty".He attributed it to "the engines and machinery coming loose from their bolts and bearings, and falling through the compartments, smashing everything in their way". Imagined view of Titanic's final plunge. Titanic was subjected to extreme opposing forces - the flooded bow pulling her down while the air in the stern kept her to the surface - which were concentrated at one of the weakest points in the structure, the area of the engine room hatch. The submerged bow may have remained attached to the stern by the keel for a short time, pulling the stern to a high angle before separating and leaving the stern to float for a few moments longer. The forward part of the stern would have flooded very rapidly, causing it to tilt and then settle briefly until sinking. Thayer reported that it rotated on the surface, gradually [turning] her deck away from us, as though to hide from our sight the awful spectacle... Then, with the deadened noise of the bursting of her last few gallant bulkheads, she slid quietly away from us into the sea. Simplistic visualization of the top-down and Mengot break-up models.  The more popular top-down theory states that the breakup was centralized on the structural weak-point at the entrance to the first boiler room, and that the breakup formed first at the upper decks before shooting down to the keel. The double-bottom would have failed first and been forced to buckle upwards into the lower decks, as the breakup shot up to the upper decks. After they went under, the bow and stern took only about 5-6 minutes to sink 3,795 metres (12,451 ft), spilling a trail of heavy machinery, tons of coal and large quantities of debris from Titanic's interior.  The streamlined bow section continued to descend at about the angle it had taken on the surface, striking the seabed prow-first at a shallow angle at an estimated speed of 25-30 mph (40-48 km/h). Its momentum caused it to dig a deep gouge into the seabed and buried the section up to 20 metres (66 ft) deep in sediment before it came to an abrupt halt. The sudden deceleration caused the bow's structure to buckle downwards by several degrees just forward of the bridge. The decks at the rear end of the bow section, which had already been weakened during the break-up, collapsed one atop another. The stern section seems to have descended almost vertically, probably rotating as it fell.
 Empty tanks and cofferdams imploded as it descended, tearing open the structure and folding back the steel ribbing of the poop deck.  The section landed with such force that it buried itself about 15 metres (49 ft) deep at the rudder.The decks pancaked down on top of each other and the hull plating splayed out to the sides. Debris continued to rain down across the seabed for several hours after the sinking. Passengers and crew in the water. Photograph of a brass pocket watch on a stand, with a silver chain curled around the base.
The watch's hands read 2:28. Pocket watch retrieved from the wreck site, stopped showing a time of 2:28. Titanic's disintegration during her descent to the seabed caused buoyant chunks of debris - timber beams, wooden doors, furniture, panelling and chunks of cork from the bulkheads - to rocket to the surface. These injured and possibly killed some of the swimmers; others used the debris to try to keep themselves afloat.With a temperature of 28 °F (-2 °C), the water was lethally cold. Second Officer Lightoller described the feeling of "a thousand knives" being driven into his body as he entered the sea.  Sudden immersion into freezing water typically causes death within minutes, either from cardiac arrest, uncontrollable breathing of water, or cold incapacitation (not, as commonly believed, from hypothermia); almost all of those in the water died of cardiac arrest or other bodily reactions to freezing water within 15-30 minutes.  Only 13 of them were helped into the lifeboats even though these had room for almost 500 more people. That I should be caught in this death trap? " Jack Thayer compared it to the sound of "locusts on a summer night", while George Rheims, who jumped moments before Titanic sank, described it as "a dismal moaning sound which I won't ever forget; it came from those poor people who were floating around, calling for help. It was horrifying, mysterious, supernatural. As Beesley later wrote, the cries came as a thunderbolt, unexpected, inconceivable, incredible. No one in any of the boats standing off a few hundred yards away can have escaped the paralysing shock of knowing that so short a distance away a tragedy, unbelievable in its magnitude, was being enacted, which we, helpless, could in no way avert or diminish.
Photograph of a moustached middle-aged man in a dark suit and waistcoat, sitting in a chair while looking at the camera. Colonel Archibald Gracie, one of the survivors who made it to collapsible lifeboat B. He never recovered from his ordeal and died eight months after the sinking. Only a few of those in the water survived. Among them were Archibald Gracie, Jack Thayer and Charles Lightoller, who made it to the capsized collapsible boat B.Around 12 crew members climbed on board Collapsible B, and they rescued those they could until some 35 men were clinging precariously to the upturned hull. Realising the risk to the boat of being swamped by the mass of swimmers around them, they paddled slowly away, ignoring the pleas of dozens of swimmers to be allowed on board. [one refusal] was met with the manly voice of a powerful man... All right boys, good luck and God bless you'.  Several other swimmers (probably 20 or more) reached Collapsible boat A, which was upright but partly flooded, as its sides had not been properly raised. Its occupants had to sit for hours in a foot of freezing water,  and many died of hypothermia during the night. Farther out, the other eighteen lifeboats - most of which had empty seats - drifted as the occupants debated what, if anything, they should do to rescue the swimmers.
 After the sinking, seven more men were pulled from the water, although two later died. Collapsible D rescued one male passenger who jumped in the water and swam over to the boat immediately after it had been lowered. In all the other boats, the occupants eventually decided against returning, probably out of fear that they would be capsized in the attempt. Some put their objections bluntly; Quartermaster Hichens, commanding lifeboat No. 6, told the women aboard his boat that there was no point returning as there were "only a lot of stiffs there".
After about twenty minutes, the cries began to fade as the swimmers lapsed into unconsciousness and death.  Fifth Officer Lowe, in charge of lifeboat No. 14, "waited until the yells and shrieks had subsided for the people to thin out" before mounting an attempt to rescue those in the water.  He gathered together five of the lifeboats and transferred the occupants between them to free up space in No.Lowe then took a crew of seven crewmen and one male passenger who volunteered to help, and then rowed back to the site of the sinking. The whole operation took about three-quarters of an hour. 14 headed back to the site of the sinking, almost all of those in the water were dead and only a few voices could still be heard. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon, recalled after the disaster that the very last cry was that of a man who had been calling loudly:'My God! He cried monotonously, in a dull, hopeless way. For an entire hour there had been an awful chorus of shrieks, gradually dying into a hopeless moan, until this last cry that I speak of.  Lowe and his crew found four men still alive, one of whom died shortly afterwards. Otherwise, all they could see were "hundreds of bodies and lifebelts"; the dead "seemed as if they had perished with the cold as their limbs were all cramped up".
The air was bitterly cold and several of the boats had taken on water. The survivors could not find any food or drinkable water in the boats, and most had no lights.
 The situation was particularly bad aboard collapsible B, which was only kept afloat by a diminishing air pocket in the upturned hull. As dawn approached, the wind rose and the sea became increasingly choppy, forcing those on the collapsible boat to stand up to balance it. Some, exhausted by the ordeal, fell off into the sea and were drowned. It became steadily more difficult for the rest to keep their balance on the hull, with waves washing across it.  Archibald Gracie later wrote of how he and the other survivors sitting on the upturned hull were struck by "the utter helplessness of our position". Photograph of a lifeboat, filled with people wearing life jackets, being rowed towards the camera. Collapsible lifeboat D photographed from the deck of Carpathia on the morning of 15 April 1912.  Carpathia's lights were first spotted around 03:30,  which greatly cheered the survivors, though it took several more hours for everyone to be brought aboard.
The 30 or more men on collapsible B finally managed to board two other lifeboats, but one survivor died just before the transfer was made.  Collapsible A was also in trouble and was now nearly awash; many of those aboard (maybe more than half) had died overnight.  The remaining survivors - an unknown number of men, estimated to be between 10-11 and more than 20, and one woman - were transferred from A into another lifeboat, leaving behind three bodies in the boat, which was left to drift away. It was recovered a month later by the White Star liner RMS Oceanic with the bodies still aboard.Those on Carpathia were startled by the scene that greeted them as the sun rose: fields of ice on which, like points on the landscape, rested innumerable pyramids of ice.  Captain Arthur Rostron of Carpathia saw ice all around, including 20 large bergs measuring up to 200 feet (61 m) high and numerous smaller bergs, as well as ice floes and debris from Titanic. 12, with 74 people aboard a boat designed to carry 65.
They were all on Carpathia by 09:00.  There were some scenes of joy as families and friends were reunited, but in most cases hopes died as loved ones failed to reappear. A man wearing a bowler hat and a woman in a shawl embrace among a crowd of people standing in a wooden building. According to an eyewitness report, there "were many pathetic scenes" when Titanic's survivors disembarked at New York.
London paperboy outside the White Star Line offices. It was only after Carpathia docked - three days after Titanic's sinking - that the full scope of the disaster became public knowledge. Even before Carpathia arrived in New York, efforts were getting underway to retrieve the dead.  Memorials were raised in various places - New York, Washington, Southampton, Liverpool, Belfast and Lichfield, among others - and ceremonies were held on both sides of the Atlantic to commemorate the dead and raise funds to aid the survivors.  The bodies of most of Titanic's victims were never recovered, and the only evidence of their deaths was found 73 years later among the debris on the seabed: pairs of shoes lying side by side, where bodies had once lain before eventually decomposing.The prevailing public reaction to the disaster was one of shock and outrage, directed against several issues and people: why were there so few lifeboats? Why had Ismay saved his own life when so many others died? Why did Titanic proceed into the ice field at full speed?  The outrage was driven not least by the survivors themselves; even while they were aboard Carpathia on their way to New York, Beesley and other survivors determined to "awaken public opinion to safeguard ocean travel in the future" and wrote a public letter to The Times urging changes to maritime safety laws. In places closely associated with Titanic, the sense of grief was deep.
The heaviest losses were in Southampton, home port to 699 crew members and also home to many of the passengers.  Crowds of weeping women - the wives, sisters and mothers of crew - gathered outside the White Star offices in Southampton for news of their loved ones.  Most of them were among the 549 Southampton residents who perished.  In Belfast, churches were packed, and shipyard workers wept in the streets. Main articles: United States Senate inquiry into the sinking of the RMS Titanic, British Wreck Commissioner's inquiry into the sinking of the RMS Titanic, and Changes in safety practices after the sinking of the RMS Titanic.
" At his feet is a paper reading "Ragged marine regulations. A worried-looking man in a top hat marked "Steamship Magnate" looks on. Time to get busy by Fisher, 1912.In the aftermath of the sinking, public inquiries were set up in Britain and the United States. The US inquiry began on 19 April under the chairmanship of Senator William Alden Smith,  and the British inquiry commenced in London under Lord Mersey on 2 May 1912.  Both inquiries strongly criticised Captain Lord of Californian for failing to render assistance to Titanic. Neither inquiry found negligence by the parent company, International Mercantile Marine Co. Or the White Star Line (which owned Titanic) to be a factor. The British inquiry also warned that What was a mistake in the case of the Titanic would without doubt be negligence in any similar case in the future.  An International Ice Patrol was set up to monitor the presence of icebergs in the North Atlantic, and maritime safety regulations were harmonised internationally through the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS); both measures are still in force today.
Further information: RMS Titanic in popular culture and Wreck of the RMS Titanic. Wreck of the Titanic, June 2004. Titanic's sinking has become a cultural phenomenon, commemorated by artists, film-makers, writers, composers, musicians and dancers from the time immediately after the sinking to the present day.
 Numerous expeditions have been launched to film the wreck and, controversially, to salvage objects from the debris field.  The first major exhibition of recovered artefacts was held at London's National Maritime Museum in 1994-95. The wreck is steadily decaying, turning to oxide at a rate of 0.5-1 ton per day (assuming one ten-thousandth of an inch per day on all surfaces). Further information: Passengers of the RMS Titanic and Crew of the RMS Titanic. The number of casualties of the sinking is unclear due to several factors, including confusion over the passenger list, which included some names of people who cancelled their trip at the last minute, and the fact that several passengers travelled under aliases for various reasons and were double-counted on the casualty lists.
 The death toll has been put at between 1,490 and 1,635 people.  The figures below are from the British Board of Trade report on the disaster. Treemap showing numbers of passengers and crew by class, and whether men, women or children, and whether saved or lost. Less than a third of those aboard Titanic survived the disaster.Some survivors died shortly afterwards; injuries and the effects of exposure caused the deaths of several of those brought aboard Carpathia.  Of the groups shown in the table, 49 percent of the children, 26 percent of the female passengers, 82 percent of the male passengers and 78 percent of the crew died. The figures show stark differences in the survival rates between men and women, and of the different classes aboard Titanic, especially among women and children. Although less than 10 percent of first- and second-class women (combined) were lost, 54 percent of those in third class died. Similarly, five of six first-class and all second-class children survived, but 52 of the 79 in third class perished.  The only first-class child to perish was Loraine Allison, aged two.
 Proportionately, the heaviest losses were suffered by the second-class men, of whom 92 percent died. Of the pets brought aboard, three survived the sinking. This item is in the category "Collectibles\Transportation\Boats & Ships\Cruise Ships & Ocean Liners\White Star & Titanic". The seller is "dalebooks" and is located in this country: US.This item can be shipped worldwide.